Create SD Image Version 0.8.1

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WARNING: Please use version 0.8.3.

The HiveTool image version 0.8.1 Release Candidate 1 for the Raspberry Pi is available for download at:

The sizes of the compressed and unzipped file:

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2499670609 May 15 21:26
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6493291008 May 15 21:17 hivetool081rc1.img

# md5sum

The main purpose of this release is to fix the boot loader in version 0.8.0 that is incompatible with the Pi 3+. The image would fail to boot and freeze with a lightning bolt on the screen and a flashing red LED. See:

WARNING: This is rc 1. The TEMPerHUM, Adam CPW200plus, TSL2561 drivers have not been tested yet (but nobody uses them and this fix needs to go out.)


These are know problems in 0.8.0 and assumed here.

  1. The python drivers for the HX711 do not work on the PI Zero (use wiringPi driver instead).
  2. MEMS microphone doesn't work

How the image was created

Get latest Stretch image

Download, verify the SHA256 checksum, unzip, burn image.

Version: November 2017
Release date: 2017-11-29
Kernel version: 4.9
Release notes: Link

Verify the checksum:

openssl dgst -sha256 -hex 
SHA256( 0e2922e551a895b136f2ea83d1bc0ca71e016e6d50244ba3da52bd764df5d1b6

Unzip the image

 inflating: 2018-04-18-raspbian-stretch.img  

Copy it to the SD card

# dd bs=40M if=2017-11-29-raspbian-stretch.img of=/dev/sdb


Stretch boots directly into the window system.

Configure Rasbian Image

Set local, time zone, keyboard, WiFi country

Configure Start Menu -> Preferences-> Raspberry Pi Configuration


Set Local

Language      -> English (default)
Country       -> US 
Character Set -> UTF-8  (default)

Set Time Zone

Area     -> US
Location -> Eastern

Set Keyboard

Country  ->  United States
Variant  ->  English (US)

Set WiFi Country

Country  -> US
Reboot Needed Reboot Now -> Yes

Configure Interfaces

Start Menu -> Preferences-> Raspberry Pi Configuration -> Interfaces

Camera         ON
SSH            ON
VNC           OFF   Turn this off as it conflicts with xRDP
SPI            ON
I2C            ON
Serial         ON    Causes Clock Not Found error on boot but need it on for serial console?
1-Wire        OFF    Causes Hive Interface Board LED to flash in bursts
Remote GPIO   OFF

Set up Wi-Fi

1. Add your network information to /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf. For an unencrypted open network with an ESSID of dlink:

vi /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

auth_alg=OPEN }

Update, upgrade

update your system's package list and then upgrade all your installed packages to their latest versions:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

DO NOT USE rpi-update.

It may be for Whezzy, not Stretch and will break the GPIO.  It installs bleeding edge
alpha or beta firmware and will break the GPIO.

Remove packages we don't need

sudo apt-get remove --purge penguinspuzzle scratch dillo squeak-vm squeak-plugins-scratch sonic-pi netsurf-gtk netsurf-common
sudo apt-get autoremove
sudo apt-get clean
rm -rf /home/pi/python_games
sudo rm -rf /opt/minecraft-pi NO! Don't do this if you want to use the video camera: sudo rm -rf /opt/vc

Install packages we need

sudo apt-get -y install gawk bc apache2 libusb-dev libgd-graph-perl libexpat1-dev sqlite3
sudo apt-get install dh-autoreconf libudev-dev libusb-1
pi@raspberrypi:~ $  sudo apt-get install dh-autoreconf libudev-dev libusb-1
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
E: Unable to locate package libusb-1

Oops. What happened to libusb-1? Hope it is not needed ... OK, We'll go on without it ...

sudo apt-get install dh-autoreconf libudev-dev 

Install perl modules

sudo cpan GD::Text GD::Graph Date::Format XML::Simple DBI DBD::SQLite
sudo cpan CGI

Install perl DateTime module by first installing the prerequisite DateTime::Local

sudo cpan DateTime::Local
sudo cpan DateTime

So, don't have to install from a package:

apt-get install libdatetime-perl

Install HiveTool software

Create downloads directory owned by user pi

sudo mkdir /home/downloads
sudo chown pi:pi /home/downloads

Create symbolic links to the hivetool log files:

sudo ln -s /home/hivetool/hivetool_raw.db /var/www/html
sudo ln -s /home/hivetool/hive.conf /var/www/html
sudo ln -s /home/hivetool/hivetool.log /var/www/html
sudo ln -s /tmp/hive.xml /var/www/html

Web Server

Configure apache

  1. Link the cgi.load and include.load module to mods-enabled
    ln -s /etc/apache2/mods-available/cgi.load /etc/apache2/mods-enabled
    ln -s /etc/apache2/mods-available/include.load /etc/apache2/mods-enabled
  2. Add .pl to AddHandler cgi-script
    sudo vi /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/mime.conf
    uncomment #AddHandler cgi-script .cgi (around line 219) and add .pl so it looks like:
    AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl
  3. add Includes and +ExecCGI to Options:
    sudo vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
    In stanza <Directory /var/www/>
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks Includes ExecCGI
  4. Add index.shtml to DirectoryIndex:
    sudo vi /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.php index.xhtml index.htm
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.php index.xhtml index.htm index.shtml
  5. Set up apache to listen on port 8080 if using port forwarding:
    sudo vi /etc/apache2/ports.conf
    add Listen 8080
  6. Restart Apache
sudo apachectl restart   or      sudo/etc/rc4.d/S02apache2 restart

Set sudo user privileges for Apache

This is necessary to allow to read the sensors. Run visudo to edit the sudo config file:

sudo visudo

and insert these line in the "User privilege specification" section:

# User privilege specification
root    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
www-data ALL=NOPASSWD: /home/hivetool/
www-data ALL=NOPASSWD: /home/hivetool/, /home/hivetool/, /home/hivetool/
www-data ALL=NOPASSWD: /home/hivetool/, /home/hivetool/
www-data ALL=NOPASSWD: /home/hivetool/
www-data ALL=NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/nice
www-data ALL=NOPASSWD: /home/hivetool/
www-data ALL=NOPASSWD: /usr/local/bin/2591, /usr/local/bin/2561
www-data ALL=NOPASSWD: /usr/local/bin/hx711, /usr/local/bin/hx711wp_chanB, /usr/local/bin/, /usr/local/bin/Seeed_DHT22

Create SQLite database

cd /home/hivetool
sqlite3 hivetool_raw.db
sqlite> .read create_hivetool_sqlite.sql
sqlite> .quit

Make it writable or will fail to save to the database.

sudo chmod a+w /home/hivetool/hivetool_raw.db
sudo chmod a+w /home/hivetool

Create a symbolic link to /home/hivetool/hivetool_raw.db from /var/www/html so and can access the database:

sudo ln -s /home/hivetool/hivetool_raw.db /var/www/html/

phpLiteAdmin ver

Install SQLite database administration tools. Download zipped file from

and save in /home/downloads.

Unzip and move the php files to/var/www/html/admin

sudo mkdir /var/www/html/admin
sudo mv *.php /var/www/html/admin

This is broken in Stretch - php5 has(finally) been replaced with php7 - enhanced performance: faster, less memory and security flaws fixed. Now, to see if SQLite will work with it ...YES! All is good.

sudo apt install php7.0 php7.0-cli
apt-get install php-sqlite3

Configure phpliteadmin

cd /var/www/html/htadmin/
sudo cp phpliteadmin.config.sample.php phpliteadmin.config.php
vi phpliteadmin.config.php


$directory = '.';  


$directory = '..';

Install TEMPerHUM software

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install dh-autoreconf libudev-dev libusb-1.0-0-dev cmake-curses-gui
cd /home/downloads
sudo git clone git://
cd hidapi
sudo ./bootstrap
sudo ./configure
sudo make
sudo make install
cd ..
#sudo git clone git://
#cd TEMPered
#sudo git clone
#cd TEMPered-v6-2015

Note: For TEMPered-v6-2015 in ccmake set

HIDAPI_HEADER_DIR                /usr/local/include/hidapi
HIDAPI_LIB                       /usr/local/lib/ 

git clone git://
sudo ccmake .

Then the sub commands: "c" to configure then "g" to save and go

sudo make
sudo make install

Add /usr/local/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/ to /etc/

sudo vi /etc/

So it looks like this:

include /etc/*.conf

Run ldconfig to pick up the new libraries

sudo ldconfig

Install Broadcom 2835 Library ver 1.55

Download the bcm2835 library and save it in /home/downloads


extract the tarball, compile and install it:

cd /home/downloads
tar xvfz bcm2835-1.55.tar.gz
cd bcm2835-1.55
sudo make check
sudo make install

Install wiringPi library ver 2.46

  1. get wiringPi code from github and compile it
    cd /home/downloads
    git clone git://
    cd wiringPi
  2. Test
    gpio -v
    gpio readall
gpio -v
gpio version: 2.46
Copyright (c) 2012-2017 Gordon Henderson

DHT22 Temperature/Humidity Sensor

Groove Seeed - DHT22 with modified code. Note that the code has been modified to return the temperature and humidity in floating point instead of having to divide it by 10, and a few other "improvements".

  1. Install wiringPi libraries
  2. Get the DHT22 software
    cd /home/downloads
    sudo git clone
    cd Grove-RaspberryPi/Grove\ -\ Temperature\ and\ Humidity\ Sensor\ Pro
    sudo cp Seeed_DHT22 /usr/local/bin

Python DHT22 code from Adafruit

*** sudo apt-get install python-dev *** NOT NECESSARY ALREADY INSTALLED ***
cd /home/downloads
git clone
cd Adafruit_Python_DHT
sudo python install
cd examples

DHTxx Temperature/Humidity Sensor

This code uses the PiGPIO libraries (pigpiod).

  1. Download the DHT11/21/22/33/44 Sensor code from
  2. Unzip
/home/downloads/DHTxx# unzip 
  inflating: DHTXXD.c                
  inflating: DHTXXD.h                
  inflating: DHTXXD_README           
  inflating: test_DHTXXD.c    
  1. compile
gcc -Wall -pthread -o DHTXXD test_DHTXXD.c DHTXXD.c -lpigpiod_if2

Note that this code uses the Broadcom GPIO numbering so Ras Pi GPIO 2 <=> Broadcom GPIO 27 Ras Pi GPIO 3 <=> Broadcom GPIO 22

HX711 weight ADC


Note: The original hx711 code has been modified to use the wiringPi library and a bug fixed.

  1. Download the software from gitHub
    cd /home/downloads
    sudo git clone
  2. replace hx711.c with hx711wp.c and add locking.h
  3. compile
    gcc -o hx711wp hx711wp.c -lwiringPi
  4. Copy hx711 command to /usr/local/bin:
    sudo cp hx711wp /usr/local/bin/hx711
  5. To read the battery voltage, copy hx711wp_chanB command to /usr/local/bin:
    sudo cp hx711wp_chanB /usr/local/bin/hx711wp_chanB


/home/downloads/2561# cp tsl2561/2561 /usr/local/bin

TLS2591 Lux Sensor

2591 Adafruit with modified code.

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10439 Aug  3 01:36 2591a.cpp
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  3303 Aug  3 01:36 2591a.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  1509 Aug  3 01:36 2591_pi_2.cpp
gcc 2591_pi_2.cpp 2591a.cpp -lwiringPi -o 2591 
cp 2591 /usr/local/bin

Add crontab entries

Edit crontab:

sudo crontab -e

Add to crontab:

# ### Start of Hivetool crontab entries ###
# start PIGPIO daemon on boot 
@reboot /usr/local/bin/pigpiod
# start Data Acquisition Daemon on boot
@reboot /home/hivetool/
# Check hive instruments every 5 minutes. Kill process after 3 1/2 minutes.
0,5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40,45,50,55 * * * * timeout -s KILL 3.5m /home/hivetool/ >/dev/null 2>&1
# Check the server status. Kill process after 1 minute.
4,9,14,19,24,29,34,39,44,49,54,59 * * * * timeout -s KILL 1m /home/hivetool/ > /var/www/html/server_status.txt
# Reset the rain gauge at midnight
1 0 * * * timeout -s KILL 1m /home/hivetool/
# ### End of HiveTool crontab entries ###


Install VLC media software. Note that for the camera to work, it must be enabled by running raspi-config.

sudo apt-get install vlc

To automatically start the video streaming using Real Time Streaming Protocol to port 8554, add to /etc/rc.local

# start video stream
su pi /home/hivetool/

/home/hivetool/ should be:

raspivid -n -o - -t 0 -w 800 -h 400 -fps 24 |cvlc -vvv stream:///dev/stdin --sout '#rtp{sdp=rtsp://:8554}' :demux=h264

This method uses raspivid to streams video from the PiCam to vlc where is can be accessed with videoLAN, a free and open souce media player for Apple, Linux, Microsoft platforms at port 8554 using RTSP://hive.ip:8554

Access Point

sudo apt-get install hostapd isc-dhcp-server

gEDA Schematic/PCB layout software

Install the Electronic Design Automation tools

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install geda
sudo apt-get install pcb
sudo apt-get install gerbv

In /home/pi/.gEDA create /home/pi/.gEDA/gschem

vi /home/pi/.gEDA/gschem

and add the following line

(component-library "/home/hardware/symbols")

Copy the schematics and PCB layouts to /home/hardware.


NO! Don't uninstall VNC, just turn it off in the configuration

Configure Start Menu -> Preferences-> Raspberry Pi Configuration -> Interfaces

uninstall RealVNC (This is a work around as now realvnc-vnc-server comes installed and breaks xrdp. xrdp is currently favored over realvnc as xrdp works with Microsoft Windows.)

uninstall RealVNC and install xrdp

apt-get purge realvnc-vnc-server

Install xrdp for Adrian and all the Micro$oft users:

sudo apt-get install xrdp

fix mouse pointer. Create /home/pi/.xsessionrc

vi /home/pi/.xsessionrc

and add this line:

xsetroot -cursor_name left_ptr&


sudo git clone git://
# ### sudo apt-get install git build-essential gcc pkg-config cmake python python-lxml
sudo apt-get install cmake cmake-data python-lxml
# enable additional features
sudo apt-get install libexpat1-dev # for XML-encodingi  ### already done
sudo apt-get install liburcu-dev # for multithreading
sudo apt-get install check # for unit tests
sudo apt-get install graphviz doxygen # for documentation generation 
sudo apt-get install cmake-curses-gui
sudo cd open62541
sudo mkdir build
sudo cd build
sudo cmake ..
sudo make

# select additional features
sudo ccmake .. # enter g to build and exit
sudo make

Install touchscreen pop up keyboard support

sudo apt-get install matchbox

Install MEMS microphone I2S support

sudo apt-get install raspberrypi-kernel-headers
cd /home/downloads
git clone
cd asoc-i2s-loader
... to be continued ...

in /boot/config.txt

# Uncomment to enable I2S MEMs microphone 6-9-16 AO

in /sys/kernel/debug/asoc/platforms get the platform and device name. Change in the asoc-i2s-loader.c


in /etc/modprobe.d/raspi-blacklist.conf

blacklist snd_soc_wm8804
blacklist snd_soc_pcm512x
blacklist snd_soc_tas5713

To record:

arecord -D hw:0 -c2 -r 48000 -f S32_LE -t wav -v file.wav

Install RTC support

Edit /boot/config.txt. Add:

#enable RTC DS3231 module

Edit /lib/udev/hwclock-set and comment out these three lines:

#if [ -e /run/systemd/system ] ; then
# exit 0

Install openOCD

sudo apt-get install git autoconf libtool make pkg-config libusb-1.0-0 libusb-1.0-0-dev
git clone git:// openocd-code
cd openocd-code
./configure --enable-sysfsgpio --enable-bcm2835gpio
sudo make install

Set GPU memory

Set GPU_MEM, GPU_MEM_256, GPU_MEM_512, and GPU_MEM_1024 for different Pi models in config.txt. Maybe:


Install Desktop Background and Icons

Copy the HiveTool icons to /usr/share/icons/hicolor/XXxXX/apps/

cd /home/downloads/icons
cd  /home/pi/Desktop/

[Desktop Entry]
Name=HiveTool Local
Comment=Hive Monitor
Exec=chromium-browser %U localhost/

Write Image

# dd bs=4M of=hivetool081rc1.img if=/dev/sdb
1895+0 records in
1895+0 records out
7948206080 bytes (7.9 GB, 7.4 GiB) copied, 198.934 s, 40.0 MB/s

ls -l
total 7761932
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7948206080 May 15 20:53 hivetool081rc1.img
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root       4592 May 15 20:56

root@debian:/home/paul/Hivetool/Backups/ver0.8.1rc1# md5sum hivetool081rc1.img
9b49e369153edab9a7b46511593dca62  hivetool081rc1.img
md5sum hivetool081rc1.img
9b49e369153edab9a7b46511593dca62  hivetool081rc1.img
root@debian:/home/paul/Hivetool/Backups/ver0.8.1rc1# ./ hivetool081rc1.img
Creating new /etc/rc.local
rootfs: 217784/477664 files (0.2% non-contiguous), 1412143/1928192 blocks
resize2fs 1.43.4 (31-Jan-2017)
resize2fs 1.43.4 (31-Jan-2017)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/loop0 to 1572988 (4k) blocks.
Begin pass 2 (max = 34305)
Begin pass 3 (max = 59)
Begin pass 4 (max = 25361)
The filesystem on /dev/loop0 is now 1572864 (4k) blocks long.

Shrunk hivetool081rc1.img from 7.5G to 6.1G
root@debian:/home/paul/Hivetool/Backups/ver0.8.1rc1# ls -l
total 6341120
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6493291008 May 15 21:17 hivetool081rc1.img
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root       4592 May 15 20:56
root@debian:/home/paul/Hivetool/Backups/ver0.8.1rc1# md5sum hivetool081rc1.img
4b99b40c9e136180f3e19ee081f35a51  hivetool081rc1.img
root@debian:/home/paul/Hivetool/Backups/ver0.8.1rc1# zip hivetool081rc1.img
 adding: hivetool081rc1.img (deflated 62%)
root@debian:/home/paul/Hivetool/Backups/ver0.8.1rc1# ls -l
total 8782212
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6493291008 May 15 21:17 hivetool081rc1.img
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2499670609 May 15 21:26
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root       4592 May 15 20:56

Copy the image to another computer:

1. Remove the SD card from the Pi and on another computer, copy the image to a file:

dd bs=4M if=/dev/sdb of=/home/downloads/hivetool080rc2.img

2a. Shrink the image

./ hivetool080rc2.img 

2b. Or use this script to shrink the image and make it expand on initial boot:

3. Compress the image using zip:

zip hivetool080rc2.img

bash-4.2# dd bs=40M  if=/dev/sdb of=/home/downloads/hivetool074.img
 379+1 records in
 379+1 records out
 15931539456 bytes (16 GB) copied, 596.492 s, 26.7 MB/s
# ./ hivetool080rc2.img
partinfo BYT; /home/downloads  /hivetool080rc2.img:15931539456B:file:512:512:msdos::;1:4194304B:47737343B:43543040B:fat32::lba;2:48234496B:15931539455B:15883304960B:ext4::;
partnumber 2
partstart 48234496
loopback /dev/loop0
e2fsck 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014)
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
rootfs: 197120/957712 files (0.2% non-contiguous), 1406114/3877760 blocks
resize2fs 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014)
minsize 1599497
minsize plus 10 1600497
resize2fs 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/loop0 to 1600497 (4k) blocks.
Begin pass 2 (max = 68187)
Begin pass 3 (max = 119)
Begin pass 4 (max = 22883)
The filesystem on /dev/loop0 is now 1600497 (4k) blocks long.

# zip hivetool080rc2.img
  adding: hivetool080rc2.img (deflated 65%)
bash-4.2# md5sum 

bash-4.2# sha1sum 
$ md5sum hivetool074.img
 2e26e8f266870cebcd51bf365d861559  hivetool074.img

$ sha1sum hivetool074.img
 c855c8c1175866bd52ed8143490d320011323108  hivetool074.img

$ ls -l hivetool080*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6603870720 Dec 23 16:54 hivetool080rc2.img
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2340360521 Dec 23 17:11